[0.001s][warning][perf,memops] Cannot use file /tmp/hsperfdata_runner/3 because it is locked by another process (errno = 11)

Intro to Modules

Now, the Hello World program that you wrote in the previous section was extremely simple - just a one-liner in a single file. Let's add a tiny bit more functionality to your first program as an excuse to learn about Claro's Module System!

Taking inspiration from the starter project's demo program, which printed the following to stdout:

| LOOK MA, NO HANDS! |                                                                                        

we'll extend our hello_world.claro program to also print out the classic greeting in the same boxed styling. We could of course just copy-paste the demo program's wrapInBox function into hello_world.claro, but instead, in order to avoid having multiple implementations of the same function that could drift over time, we'll walk through the process of refactoring both programs so that each can share a single function implementation as a common dependency.

Create //example:styling.claro

First thing first, create the file //example:styling.claro to hold the wrapInBox function definition:

Fig 1:

function wrapInBox(s: string) -> string {
  var line = strings::repeated("-", len(s) + 4);
  return "{line}\n| {s} |\n{line}";

Define a Module API File

Claro Modules are extremely flexible by design (we'll only begin to scratch the surface here) and in order to achieve that flexibility a Module API file is used to declare which definitions are exported to consumers of the Module. Any definition not listed in the Module API file is "private" by default. In this case we just have the one function definition so we'll add its signature to the new file styling.claro_module_api (the only naming requirement here is that it must end with the .claro_module_api suffix).

Fig 2:

# Wraps the given string in a "box" of dashes.
# E.g.
#   Input:
#     "Foo"
#   Output:
#     -------
#     | Foo |
#     -------
function wrapInBox(s: string) -> string;

As a general rule of thumb, when working in a Claro project, you should prioritize writing documentation for anything exported in a Module API file. And when reading code, it's advisable to spend most of your time primarily referencing Module API files rather than their corresponding source files, unless of course you are curious to understand the implementation.

Your project should now have the following structure:

Fig 3:

|-- .bazelrc
|-- .bazelversion
|-- MODULE.bazel
|-- README.md
`-- example
    |-- BUILD
    |-- demo.claro
    |-- hello_world.claro
    |-- input.txt
    |-- styling.claro
    `-- styling.claro_module_api

1 directory, 10 files

Add a claro_module(name = "styling", ...) Build Target

The final step in defining a Module in Claro is defining a claro_module(...) build target. Add the following to your BUILD file to create a Module by declaring explicitly that the styling.claro file implements the interface declared by styling.claro_module_api:

Fig 4:

load("//:rules.bzl", "claro_binary", "claro_module")  # <-- New

  name = "demo_bin",
  main_file = "demo.claro",
  resources = {
    "Input": "input.txt",

  name = "hello_world",
  main_file = "hello_world.claro",
  deps = {                                            # <-- New
    "Style": ":styling",

claro_module(                                         # <-- New
  name = "styling",
  module_api_file = "styling.claro_module_api",
  srcs = ["styling.claro"],

Updated load(...) Statement

The load(...) statement also needed to be updated to include the newly used claro_module Build Rule.

Added an Explicit Dependency on //example:styling

Claro handles dependencies entirely within Bazel BUILD files, and .claro source files themselves do not have any mechanism for the traditional import style that you will have gotten accustomed to in other languages. This is the key to Claro's extremely flexible Module system and provides many powerful advantages over the traditional import style, but we won't get any further into that here.

For now, just note that claro_*() Build targets all accept an (optional) deps = {<dep name>: <module target>} map that explicitly declares and names any dependencies the current compilation unit has on any other Module. Note that the consuming compilation unit is free to choose any name to refer to the Module(s) that it depends on. Here we've chosen to name the //example:styling Module Style.

Update hello_world.claro to Use Style::wrapInBox

Now we're finally ready to update our Hello World program to wrap its output in a box using its new module dependency! Update hello_world.claro to:

Fig 5:

print(Style::wrapInBox("Hello, World!"));

Now Execute Your Updated Hello World!

Note: The below recording was made with asciinema - try pausing and copying any text.

On Your Own: Update //example:demo_bin to Use the New Module

Using what you've learned, it should now be straightforward to update //example:demo_bin to also depend on the newly defined Module so that there's only a single definition of the wrapInBox function in your project.

On Your Own: Refactor //example:styling to its Own Directory

This will be a good way to test your understanding of how Claro and Bazel work together.

Hint: You can move the Module definition anywhere in the project that you want, but you'll need to update the deps = {...} declarations to reference its new location.